Jumat, 01 Oktober 2010

MICRONESIA, MELANESIA, AND POLYNESIA


Map of Melanesia[1]
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            Three terms above are names of archipelago and sub division around Pacific Ocean at once. They have same characteristics like beautiful scenery and fresh air even though at the last time Polynesian area ever become glissade place of French atom boom, but  nowadays is not happened anymore. Physically, there is little difference of the people race, for example Polynesian people have brighter skin, Micronesian people have small body, and Melanesian people have black skin. For clearer, in the next paragraph, the writer will explain more detail based on location, characteristic, and topography.

Melanesia
            Melanesia, as told before, is one of the three major subdivisions with Micronesia and Polynesia, which is encompassing the islands in the western Pacific Ocean, south of the equator. Melanesia’s western most island is New Guinea, the largest of all the Pacific Islands and the world’s second largest island after Greenland. Western New Guinea consists of the Indonesian province of Papua; the eastern half of the island and several major offshore islands and island groups form the independent nation of Papua New Guinea. Stretching east and south of New Guinea are the countries of Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, the French territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies, and the nation of Fiji Islands (Fiji). European explorers named the region Melanesia (Mela is black) because of the dark complexion of the inhabitants. More than 700 languages are spoken in the region .[2]
            The original inhabitants of New Guinea migrated to the island more than 30,000 years ago. Their descendants are few in number and survive only in the remote, mountainous interior. A second group, Papuans, are the predominant population of New Guinea. A third group, Melanesians, are found principally along the northern coast of New Guinea and throughout the other islands of Melanesia. All three groups are thought to be descended from Austronesia peoples who populated Australia and parts of Southeast Asia, although there has been considerable and varied mixture with other groups over time. An exception to the dominance of black-skinned Melanesians is in Fiji, where many of the native peoples of Fiji’s easternmost islands resemble taller, lighter-skinned Polynesians. Also, many Fijians are of Indian ancestry, descendants of Indians imported on British ships between 1879 and 1916 to work on sugar plantations. Most Melanesians are subsistence farmers, and their societies are basically patrilineal—that is, descent is traced through the male line. Melanesian art includes pottery and, in Fiji, tapa cloth, which is made from the bark of the paper mulberry tree.[3]

Polynesia
Map of Polynesia[4]
Polynesia is located in the middle and south Pasific. Its area is larger than Micronesia and  Polynesia mergered. Polynesia consist of American Samoa, Cook Island, French Polynesia, Hawai, New Zealand, Niue, Pitcairn Island, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wallis and  Futuna archipelago. Polynesia is generally defined as the islands within the Polynesian triangle. This location is Isolated but beautiful archipelago which spread out until 1000 islands. Total area is  294.000 km² with 50 million km² as water area.
Polynesia are from mongoloid race which have brighter skin and taller than Micronesia and Polynesia, even though they don’t use metal but their culture has more quality by using local material, For example, Polynesians put the coconut palm to a variety of uses: they made matting and roof thatch from the leaves of the palm, baskets from the fibrous material covering the coconuts, household containers and other utensils from the shells, and various foods and beverages out of the meat and liquid. In daily life, they communicate with Austronesian language.
Before colonial era, they are fishing by many variation ways, make statue, handicraft, sing a song and dance. Those culture is bequeathed to the next generation . In colonial era, Polynesian people believe many Gods and think as Gods’ heredity, Now Many of them are Christians. Protestant as majority religion there and Rome Catholic as minority. Polynesian people, which has characteristic Asian Race and Polynesians, Polynesians are the most homogeneous in culture, language, and physical appearance. Most of them are from southeast Polynesian sailor sail to Pacific area with star as guidance. Polynesian people, which has characteristic Asian Race, most of them are from southeast Polynesian sailor sail to Pacific area with star as guidance. Polynesia divides into two distinct cultural groups, East Polynesia and West Polynesia. There are some state, but most of them still become colony area.[5]

Micronesia
Map of Micronesia[6]
Micronesia which has official named Federated States of Micronesia are located in about 5.150 km  lies between Hawaii and the Philippines in the North Pacific. Dumont d'Urville named it for its mikros (small) nesos (islands), literally thousands of which make up the Marshall, Caroline, Mariana, and Gilbert groups. Micronesia is broken down into seven distinct entities, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Territory of Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Republic of Palau, the Republic of Kiribati, and Nauru.[7]
The islands of eastern Micronesia are inhabited by people with marked Polynesian, or Mongoloid, characteristics such as lighter skin and dark hair that is straight or wavy but not curled. In the westernmost islands, however, tan-skinned Malays and dark-skinned Melanesians are found.
Reflecting their emphasis on fishing and interisland trade by sea, Micronesians generally live in coastal villages that seldom have more than a few hundred people. Typical dwellings are thatched, single-room houses with separate cooking huts. Except in Kiribati, Micronesian families are mostly matrilineal—that is, descent is traced through the mother’s family. In all areas families tend to be close-knit, and obligations between family members are strong. In most of Micronesia, prestige is measured by wealth.[8]
In precolonial times, religion in Micronesia was pantheistic (consisting of many gods). Gods were believed to control weather, health, and other conditions, and chiefs were believed to be descended from the gods. European and American missionaries have since converted most Micronesians to Christianity, especially Roman Catholicism. Micronesian art includes shell ornaments, floor mats, tattoos, and woodcraft.
The most popular air travel route through the region features stops on Majuro, Kwajalein, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk, Guam, Saipan, Yap, and Koror.These islands have been heavily impacted by outsiders, first German and Japanese colonialists prior to the world wars, then as trusts or associates of the United States. Kiribati is a former British colony.
The occupation’s people are farming, fishing, and also as government employees. Their houses are small which consist by single-room houses and separated huts used for cooking. The art made by Micronesians includes shell ornaments, floor mats, tattoos, and woodcraft. In Kiribati, Micronesian families are mostly matrilineal, so the generation is traced through the mother's family. Obligations between family members are strong. In most of Micronesia, prestige is measured by wealth.

Analyses
            Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia event though just have small area which have isolated location but can be interesting destination for tourism, because have beautiful scenery. They have abundant raw material and high culture which still external until now. They are really tiny wonderful island in the world, but unfortunately they are not exist in international community. In this globalization era, if they still don’t join in international organization, so that they will be developing country.

Acknowledgement
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fp.html
Oceania, National Geographic Pictures Atlas of Our World, Washington DC: National Geographic Society, 1991, p. 240
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation
Spriggs, Matthew. The Island Melanesians. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.
www.mapsouthpacific.com/pacific/index.html accessed  8 September 2009, at  11:00


[1]  Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation
[2] Matthew Spriggs. The Island Melanesians. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.
[3] www.mapsouthpacific.com/pacific/index.html accessed  8 September 2009, at  11:00
[4] Ibid
[5] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fp.html
[6] Op cit
[7] Oceania, National Geographic Pictures Atlas of Our World, Washington DC: National Geographic Society, 1991, p. 240
[8] Opcit

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